All About Guns / Tactics / Survival, Government & Use of Force
I have this web site for my horse channel and made this page for this All About Guns and Think Like A Cop Channel.
My goal is to provide real life training, information and education on guns, shooting, surviving a shooting situation, police and military tactics, the Criminal Justice System, and pass on my 30 plus years of Military and Police experiences and training.
Knowledge of the situation is the first rule of survival - Skepticism and Distrust are your best backup plans..
Topics that I will be covering will be varied but my goal is to promote gun ownership, remove fears about guns, home defense, carrying concealed guns, defending yourself or family, dealing with legal issues, how bullets and firearms work, selecting between rifles, pistols or shotguns, and selecting the best bullets or ammunition for your "intended" use. I will also talk about how to protect your legally if you are involved in shooting situation and the inner workings of the Criminal Justice System, like courts, prosecutors, the law and police behavior.
I will also cover topics as they come up so if you have questions or situations that you want like me to address and give my opinion, ask them in the comments and I will answer there or make a video on that topic.
A student asked his Master:
"You teach me fighting but you talk about peace. How do you balance the two?"
The Master replied:
"It is better to be a warrior in a garden, than a gardener in a war."
I AM ONLY A MAN
The story of Marcus Aurelius who was a Roman Emperor, Horseman & Philosopher goes like this:
As the legend has it, Marcus Aurelius being fully aware of how power can corrupt a man and make him forget that he is just a man, he hired a servant to follow him as he walked the empire’s streets. Every time the citizens bowed to him, took a knee for him or called out his name or words of praise, Marcus Aurelius instructed this servant to whisper in his ear, "You're just a man. You're just a man."
He knew that the best way to test a man’s character was to give him power and fame. He knew power was a drug that created monsters and the more you had, the more you wanted and the more you would do to keep it. The best people to have power will not want it and will not want to use it.
- A wise man he was
RELEASE OF LIABILITY AND WAIVER
Don’t substitute my judgment or advice for your own. I provide information on my experience and training, my decisions and advice is based on what I know & my training, not what you know. By accessing my videos or this page, you agree that whatever you do is your responsibility and not mine. I could put all kind of legal mumbo jumbo like you hold me harmless and release me and my past relatives and future relatives of any and all liability - but to put it in laymen terms - Don't do stupid things and blame me, if you are too stupid to take responsibility for your actions then you should not own a gun or be watching my videos or any other video for that matter. Guns can kill you but not by themselves, they require a human using them to kill, so be careful, don't be stupid and remember it's your gun, your actions and your responsibility.
This is a serious subject and deals with life and death situations and actions - I talk rough, use hard language, show graphic photos and don't sugar coat things - if that offends you exercise your right to leave.
An intellectual is Not the one who thinks he knows a lot -
but the one who knows he thinks a lot!
Here is a link to my videos on Youtube
Think Like A Cop Youtube Channel
This is a picture is of a bridge that divides the US and Mexico border. This is the Mexico side of the border, the picture is from 2012, a buddy of mine said he sees this crap all the time since he travels to the border and hauls horses. He said it is so bad in the area 60 miles on the US side of the border, the cops tell people don't stop on hwy or you will be robbed and car jacked. 100s of Texas State Troopers are all over the area and they say they are in many shoot outs and they are out gunned.
But the Liberals are suppressing the media coverage so not ruin their OPEN BORDERS bullshit. So this is what we have to look forward too as more and more illegals flood our country. This is the NEW CHANGE promised by Liberals and our corrupt Fed Gov. It always amazes me that people see all this and then when kids are killed by illegals, raped and molested and crimes, gangs and sucking up resources happen parents are crying for their kids safety and wondering how it happened.
There are None so blind as those that refuse to see.
According to a news report, if you can believe anything you read, the bodies of 23 people have been found hanging from a bridge or decapitated and dumped along the border city of Nuevo Laredo, where drug cartels are fighting a bloody and escalating turf war.
Authorities found nine of the victims, including four women, hanging from an overpass leading to a main highway, said a Tamaulipas state official who spoke on condition of anonymity because he was not authorized to provide information on the case.
Hours later, police found 14 human heads inside coolers outside city hall along with a threatening note. The 14 bodies were found in black plastic bags inside a car abandoned near an international bridge, the official said.
Disease, gangs, flooding our schools with kids that don't speak English, lowering our educations standards, voting for Liberals to get free Gov handouts, policy based on PC and race than for the good on the future of the country. Our country is fading and people are too busy being PC and worrying about not being called racist by ignorant Liberal policies. Oh yea, Mexico has Extreme Gun Control so they are safe since good people can't own guns.
For evil to exist, all that is required is for good people to stand by and do nothing.
Here is a photo that was floating around. It implies several things. Notice the finger if off the trigger of the cover man. Notice his position so he can see down the wall once the door opens. The caption on this shows how our government pushes it weight around all over the world and then wonders why people hate us. It reminds of a old war saying "We are here to give them freedom and poor dumb bastards would rather be alive than free". Some will see this photo as a negative view of the soldiers "just doing their job". These guys are young men, following orders and trying to stay alive. They are not out on a Saturday night looking for kicks.
"I must study politics and war so that my sons may have liberty to study mathematics and philosophy."
Here is a picture of the Ambassador killed and tortured in Benghazi. A lot of things can be seen here if viewed with a critical eye. The behavior of the mob or group of attackers is what is known as Mob Behavior. When people are in a group that may have one goal and then the group turns violent or aggressive, human nature, herd instincts, showing support for the group or cause, can all cause people to do things they may not normally do or want to do. They get caught up in the moment and join the group.
I am not excusing the behavior, but explaining how things can quickly escalate out of control and you can become a victim very fast if you don't see the signs or understand what is happening. The ability to look ahead, predict danger, anticipate actions all make you better prepared to survive. Not being in your White Zone, being aware of your surroundings, paying attention to warning signs, having an escape path or plan to create distance will all help you to survive.
My guess is this Ambassador did not have a gun, was not prepared to defend himself since he always had security and a protection detail. Which is why I push self-reliance. When you give the Government or others the power to protect you, then the Government can decide when, how and where to protect you. Gun ownership has saved countless lives, yet the liberal media would have you believe guns are bad and they cause all the problems. And yet people believe that If Only Gov had Guns then the people will be safe, the exact opposite of what history shows us.
I am not trying to make the Ambassador look bad, but trying to make the point, knowledge and preparedness is the key to protecting yourself and your loved ones. Giving that ability away never ends well.
“Those who surrender freedom for security will not have, nor do they deserve, either one.”
- Benjamin Franklin
On Sheep, Wolves, and Sheepdogs - Dave Grossman
By LTC (RET) Dave Grossman, author of "On Killing."
Honor never grows old, and honor rejoices the heart of age. It does so because honor is, finally, about defending those noble and worthy things that deserve defending, even if it comes at a high cost. In our time, that may mean social disapproval, public scorn, hardship, persecution, or as always, even death itself. The question remains: What is worth defending? What is worth dying for? What is worth living for? - William J. Bennett - in a lecture to the United States Naval Academy November 24, 1997
One Vietnam veteran, an old retired colonel, once said this to me: "Most of the people in our society are sheep. They are kind, gentle, productive creatures who can only hurt one another by accident." This is true. Remember, the murder rate is six per 100,000 per year, and the aggravated assault rate is four per 1,000 per year. What this means is that the vast majority of Americans are not inclined to hurt one another. Some estimates say that two million Americans are victims of violent crimes every year, a tragic, staggering number, perhaps an all-time record rate of violent crime. But there are almost 300 million Americans, which means that the odds of being a victim of violent crime is considerably less than one in a hundred on any given year. Furthermore, since many violent crimes are committed by repeat offenders, the actual number of violent citizens is considerably less than two million.
Thus there is a paradox, and we must grasp both ends of the situation: We may well be in the most violent times in history, but violence is still remarkably rare. This is because most citizens are kind, decent people who are not capable of hurting each other, except by accident or under extreme provocation. They are sheep.
I mean nothing negative by calling them sheep. To me it is like the pretty, blue robin's egg. Inside it is soft and gooey but someday it will grow into something wonderful. But the egg cannot survive without its hard blue shell. Police officers, soldiers, and other warriors are like that shell, and someday the civilization they protect will grow into something wonderful.? For now, though, they need warriors to protect them from the predators.
"Then there are the wolves," the old war veteran said, "and the wolves feed on the sheep without mercy." Do you believe there are wolves out there who will feed on the flock without mercy? You better believe it. There are evil men in this world and they are capable of evil deeds. The moment you forget that or pretend it is not so, you become a sheep. There is no safety in denial
"Then there are sheepdogs," he went on, "and I'm a sheepdog. I live to protect the flock and confront the wolf." If you have no capacity for violence then you are a healthy productive citizen, a sheep. If you have a capacity for violence and no empathy for your fellow citizens, then you have defined an aggressive sociopath, a wolf. But what if you have a capacity for violence, and a deep love for your fellow citizens? What do you have then? A sheepdog, a warrior, someone who is walking the hero's path. Someone who can walk into the heart of darkness, into the universal human phobia, and walk out unscathed
Let me expand on this old soldier's excellent model of the sheep, wolves, and sheepdogs. We know that the sheep live in denial, that is what makes them sheep. They do not want to believe that there is evil in the world. They can accept the fact that fires can happen, which is why they want fire extinguishers, fire sprinklers, fire alarms and fire exits throughout their kids' schools.
But many of them are outraged at the idea of putting an armed police officer in their kid's school. Our children are thousands of times more likely to be killed or seriously injured by school violence than fire, but the sheep's only response to the possibility of violence is denial. The idea of someone coming to kill or harm their child is just too hard, and so they chose the path of denial.
The sheep generally do not like the sheepdog. He looks a lot like the wolf. He has fangs and the capacity for violence. The difference, though, is that the sheepdog must not, cannot and will not ever harm the sheep. Any sheep dog who intentionally harms the lowliest little lamb will be punished and removed. The world cannot work any other way, at least not in a representative democracy or a republic such as ours.
Still, the sheepdog disturbs the sheep. He is a constant reminder that there are wolves in the land. They would prefer that he didn't tell them where to go, or give them traffic tickets, or stand at the ready in our airports in camouflage fatigues holding an M-16. The sheep would much rather have the sheepdog cash in his fangs, spray paint himself white, and go, "Baa."
Until the wolf shows up. Then the entire flock tries desperately to hide behind one lonely sheepdog. The students, the victims, at Columbine High School were big, tough high school students, and under ordinary circumstances they would not have had the time of day for a police officer. They were not bad kids; they just had nothing to say to a cop. When the school was under attack, however, and SWAT teams were clearing the rooms and hallways, the officers had to physically peel those clinging, sobbing kids off of them. This is how the little lambs feel about their sheepdog when the wolf is at the door.
Look at what happened after September 11, 2001 when the wolf pounded hard on the door. Remember how America, more than ever before, felt differently about their law enforcement officers and military personnel? Remember how many times you heard the word hero?
Understand that there is nothing morally superior about being a sheepdog; it is just what you choose to be. Also understand that a sheepdog is a funny critter: He is always sniffing around out on the perimeter, checking the breeze, barking at things that go bump in the night, and yearning for a righteous battle. That is, the young sheepdogs yearn for a righteous battle. The old sheepdogs are a little older and wiser, but they move to the sound of the guns when needed right along with the young ones.
Here is how the sheep and the sheepdog think differently. The sheep pretend the wolf will never come, but the sheepdog lives for that day. After the attacks on September 11, 2001, most of the sheep, that is, most citizens in America said, "Thank God I wasn't on one of those planes." The sheepdogs, the warriors, said, "Dear God, I wish I could have been on one of those planes. Maybe I could have made a difference." When you are truly transformed into a warrior and have truly invested yourself into warriorhood, you want to be there. You want to be able to make a difference.
There is nothing morally superior about the sheepdog, the warrior, but he does have one real advantage. Only one. And that is that he is able to survive and thrive in an environment that destroys 98 percent of the population. There was research conducted a few years ago with individuals convicted of violent crimes. These cons were in prison for serious, predatory crimes of violence: assaults, murders and killing law enforcement officers. The vast majority said that they specifically targeted victims by body language: slumped walk, passive behavior and lack of awareness. They chose their victims like big cats do in Africa, when they select one out of the herd that is least able to protect itself.
Some people may be destined to be sheep and others might be genetically primed to be wolves or sheepdogs. But I believe that most people can choose which one they want to be, and I'm proud to say that more and more Americans are choosing to become sheepdogs. Seven months after the attack on September 11, 2001, Todd Beamer was honored in his hometown of Cranbury, New Jersey. Todd, as you recall, was the man on Flight 93 over Pennsylvania who called on his cell phone to alert an operator from United Airlines about the hijacking. When he learned of the other three passenger planes that had been used as weapons, Todd dropped his phone and uttered the words, "Let's roll," which authorities believe was a signal to the other passengers to confront the terrorist hijackers. In one hour, a transformation occurred among the passengers - athletes, business people and parents. -- from sheep to sheepdogs and together they fought the wolves, ultimately saving an unknown number of lives on the ground.
There is no safety for honest men except by believing all possible evil of evil men. - Edmund Burke Here is the point I like to emphasize, especially to the thousands of police officers and soldiers I speak to each year. In nature the sheep, real sheep, are born as sheep. Sheepdogs are born that way, and so are wolves. They didn't have a choice. But you are not a critter. As a human being, you can be whatever you want to be. It is a conscious, moral decision. If you want to be a sheep, then you can be a sheep and that is okay, but you must understand the price you pay. When the wolf comes, you and your loved ones are going to die if there is not a sheepdog there to protect you. If you want to be a wolf, you can be one, but the sheepdogs are going to hunt you down and you will never have rest, safety, trust or love. But if you want to be a sheepdog and walk the warrior's path, then you must make a conscious and moral decision every day to dedicate, equip and prepare yourself to thrive in that toxic, corrosive moment when the wolf comes knocking at the door.
For example, many officers carry their weapons in church? They are well concealed in ankle holsters, shoulder holsters or inside-the-belt holsters tucked into the small of their backs.? Anytime you go to some form of religious service, there is a very good chance that a police officer in your congregation is carrying. You will never know if there is such an individual in your place of worship, until the wolf appears to massacre you and your loved ones. I was training a group of police officers in Texas, and during the break, one officer asked his friend if he carried his weapon in church. The other cop replied, "I will never be caught without my gun in church." I asked why he felt so strongly about this, and he told me about a cop he knew who was at a church massacre in Ft. Worth, Texas in 1999. In that incident, a mentally deranged individual came into the church and opened fire, gunning down fourteen people. He said that officer believed he could have saved every life that day if he had been carrying his gun. His own son was shot, and all he could do was throw himself on the boy's body and wait to die. That cop looked me in the eye and said, "Do you have any idea how hard it would be to live with yourself after that?"
Some individuals would be horrified if they knew this police officer was carrying a weapon in church. They might call him paranoid and would probably scorn him. Yet these same individuals would be enraged and would call for "heads to roll" if they found out that the airbags in their cars were defective, or that the fire extinguisher and fire sprinklers in their kids' school did not work. They can accept the fact that fires and traffic accidents can happen and that there must be safeguards against them.
Their only response to the wolf, though, is denial, and all too often their response to the sheepdog is scorn and disdain. But the sheepdog quietly asks himself, "Do you have and idea how hard it would be to live with yourself if your loved ones attacked and killed, and you had to stand there helplessly because you were unprepared for that day?"
It is denial that turns people into sheep. Sheep are psychologically destroyed by combat because their only defense is denial, which is counterproductive and destructive, resulting in fear, helplessness and horror when the wolf shows up
Denial kills you twice. It kills you once, at your moment of truth when you are not physically prepared: you didn't bring your gun, you didn't train. Your only defense was wishful thinking. Hope is not a strategy. Denial kills you a second time because even if you do physically survive, you are psychologically shattered by your fear helplessness and horror at your moment of truth.
Gavin de Becker puts it like this in Fear Less, his superb post-9/11 book, which should be required reading for anyone trying to come to terms with our current world situation: "...denial can be seductive, but it has an insidious side effect. For all the peace of mind deniers think they get by saying it isn't so, the fall they take when faced with new violence is all the more unsettling."
Denial is a save-now-pay-later scheme, a contract written entirely in small print, for in the long run, the denying person knows the truth on some level. And so the warrior must strive to confront denial in all aspects of his life, and prepare himself for the day when evil comes. If you are warrior who is legally authorized to carry a weapon and you step outside without that weapon, then you become a sheep, pretending that the bad man will not come today. No one can be "on" 24/7, for a lifetime. Everyone needs down time. But if you are authorized to carry a weapon, and you walk outside without it, just take a deep breath, and say this to yourself "Baa."
This business of being a sheep or a sheep dog is not a yes-no dichotomy. It is not an all-or-nothing, either-or choice. It is a matter of degrees, a continuum. On one end is an abject, head-in-the-sand-sheep and on the other end is the ultimate warrior. Few people exist completely on one end or the other. Most of us live somewhere in between. Since 9-11 almost everyone in America took a step up that continuum, away from denial. The sheep took a few steps toward accepting and appreciating their warriors, and the warriors started taking their job more seriously. The degree to which you move up that continuum, away from sheephood and denial, is the degree to which you and your loved ones will survive, physically and psychologically at your moment of truth.
"The world is a dangerous place, not because of those who do evil, but because of those who look on that evil and do nothing."
- Albert Einstein
How times have changed. The picture below show before Gov took over the schools and the education of our future generations.
Here is a picture of my younger days at Vallejo Police Department in California.
Here is a picture of Sacramento Auto Theft Task Force - I am first guy on the left.
Here is a picture of me working on the High Tech Computer Crimes Task Force, on my way to arrest and serve a warrant on a Child pornography case that took a long time to locate the asshole, as you can see I was happy to go get this guy.
My attack dog Rex and me out in Korea 1978.
This is me re-enlisting in the Air Force in Ohio with my trusting Narcotic Dog Herc, my Commander and friend swearing me in was Col. Ralph E. Fisher.
Here is a picture of me training attack dogs in the military
Here is a picture of me kicking back waiting for a Warrant on a Child Abduction case.
Here is a picture of me competing with with local PD and FBI SWAT teams during the shooting part.
One often meets his own destiny on the road he takes to avoid it.
Here is a good partial explanation of some bullet ballistics and how weight, speed & bullet type. A more detailed complete article can be seen at
The Library of Utah Website.
The term ballistics refers to the science of the travel of a projectile in flight. The flight path of a bullet includes: travel down the barrel, path through the air, and path through a target. The wounding potential of projectiles is a complex matter. (Fackler, 1996)Internal, or initial ballistics (within the gun)
Bullets fired from a rifle will have more energy than similar bullets fired from a handgun. More powder can also be used in rifle cartridges because the bullet chambers can be designed to withstand greater pressures (50,000 to 70,000 for rifles psi vs. 30,000 to 40,000 psi for handgun chamber). Higher pressures require a bigger gun with more recoil that is slower to load and generates more heat that produces more wear on the metal. It is difficult in practice to measure the forces within a gun barrel, but the one easily measured parameter is the velocity with which the bullet exits the barrel (muzzle velocity) and this measurement will be used in examples below. (Bruner et al, 2011)
The controlled expansion of gases from burning gunpowder generates pressure (force/area). The area here is the base of the bullet (equivalent to diameter of barrel) and is a constant. Therefore, the energy transmitted to the bullet (with a given mass) will depend upon mass times force times the time interval over which the force is applied. The last of these factors is a function of barrel length. Bullet travel through a gun barrel is characterized by increasing acceleration as the expanding gases push on it, but decreasing pressure in the barrel as the gas expands. Up to a point of diminishing pressure, the longer the barrel, the greater the acceleration of the bullet. (Volgas, Stannard and Alonso, 2005)
As the bullet traverses the barrel of the gun, some minor deformation occurs, called setback deformation. This results from minor (rarely major) imperfections or variations in rifling or tool marks within the barrel. The effect upon the subsequent flight path of the bullet is usually insignificant. (Jandial et al, 2008)
External ballistics (from gun to target)
The external ballistics of a bullet's path can be determined by several formulas, the simplest of which is:
Kinetic Energy (KE) = 1/2 MV2 Velocity (V) is usually given in feet per second (fps) and mass (M) is given in pounds, derived from the weight (W) of the bullet in grains, divided by 7000 grains per pound times the acceleration of gravity (32 ft/sec) so that:
Kinetic Energy (KE) = W(V)2 / (450,435) ft/lb
This is the bullet's energy as it leaves the muzzle, but the ballistic coefficient (BC) will determine the amount of KE delivered to the target as air resistance is encountered.
Forward motion of the bullet is also affected by drag (D), which is calculated as:
Drag (D) = f(v/a)k&pd2v2 f(v/a) is a coefficient related to the ratio of the velocity of the bullet to the velocity of sound in the medium through which it travels. k is a constant for the shape of the bullet and & is a constant for yaw (deviation from linear flight). p is the density of the medium (tissue density is >800 times that of air), d is the diameter (caliber) of the bullet, and v the velocity. Thus, greater velocity, greater caliber, or denser tissue gives more drag. The degree to which a bullet is slowed by drag is called retardation (r) given by the formula:
r = D / M
Drag is difficult to measure, so the Ballistic Coefficient (BC) is often used:
BC = SD / I
SD is the sectional density of the bullet, and I is a form factor for the bullet shape. Sectional density is calculated from the bullet mass (M) divided by the square of its diameter. The form factor value I decreases with increasing pointedness of the bullet (a sphere would have the highest I value).
Since drag (D) is a function of velocity, it can be seen that for a bullet of a given mass (M), the greater the velocity, the greater the retardation. Drag is also influenced by bullet spin. The faster the spin, the less likely a bullet will "yaw" or turn sideways and tumble in its flight path through the air. Thus, increasing the twist of the rifling from 1 in 7 will impart greater spin than the typical 1 in 12 spiral (one turn in 12 inches of barrel).
Bullets do not typically follow a straight line to the target. Rotational forces are in effect that keep the bullet off a straight axis of flight. These rotational effects are diagrammed below:
Yaw refers to the rotation of the nose of the bullet away from the line of flight. Precession refers to rotation of the bullet around the center of mass. Nutation refers to small circular movement at the bullet tip. Yaw and precession decrease as the distance of the bullet from the barrel increases.
What do all these formulae mean in terms of designing cartridges and bullets? Well, given that a cartridge can be only so large to fit in a chamber, and given that the steel of the chamber can handle only so much pressure from increasing the amount of gunpowder, the kinetic energy for any given weapon is increased more easily by increasing bullet mass. Though the square of the velocity would increase KE much more, it is practically very difficult to increase velocity, which is dependent upon the amount of gunpowder burned. There is only so much gunpowder that can burned efficiently in a cartridge. Thus, cartridges designed for hunting big game animals use very large bullets.
To reduce air resistance, the ideal bullet would be a long, heavy needle, but such a projectile would go right through the target without dispersing much of its energy. Light spheres would be retarded the greatest within tissues and release more energy, but might not even get to the target. A good aerodynamic compromise bullet shape is a parabolic curve with low frontal area and wind-splitting shape. The best bullet composition is lead (Pb) which is of high density and is cheap to obtain. Its disadvantages are a tendency to soften at velocities >1000 fps, causing it to smear the barrel and decrease accuracy, and >2000 fps lead tends to melt completely. Alloying the lead (Pb) with a small amount of antimony (Sb) helps, but the real answer is to interface the lead bullet with the hard steel barrel through another metal soft enough to seal the bullet in the barrel but of high melting point. Copper (Cu) works best as this "jacket" material for lead.
Terminal ballistics (hitting the target)
Yaw has a lot to do with the injury pattern of a bullet on the target, termed "terminal ballistics." A short, high velocity bullet begins to yaw more severely and turn, and even rotate, upon entering tissue. This causes more tissue to be displaced, increases drag, and imparts more of the KE to the target. A longer, heavier bullet might have more KE at a longer range when it hits the target, but it may penetrate so well that it exits the target with much of its KE remaining. Even a bullet with a low KE can impart significant tissue damage if it can be designed to give up all of the KE into the target, and the target is at short range (as with handguns). Despite yaw, an intact bullet that comes to rest in tissue generally has its long axis aligned along the path of the bullet track, though its final position may be either nose forward or base forward. (Jandial et al, 2008)
Bullets produce tissue damage in three ways (Adams, 1982):
1. Laceration and crushing - Tissue damage through laceration and crushing occurs along the path or "track" through the body that a projectile, or its fragments, may produce.
2. Cavitation - A "permanent" cavity is caused by the path (track) of the bullet itself with crushing of tissue, whereas a "temporary" cavity is formed by radial stretching around the bullet track from continued acceleration of the medium (air or tissue) in the wake of the bullet, causing the wound cavity to be stretched outward. For projectiles traveling at low velocity the permanent and temporary cavities are nearly the same, but at high velocity and with bullet yaw the temporary cavity becomes larger (Maiden, 2009).
3. Shock waves - Shock waves compress the medium and travel ahead of the bullet, as well as to the sides, but these waves last only a few microseconds and do not cause profound destruction at low velocity. At high velocity, generated shock waves can reach up to 200 atmospheres of pressure. (DiMaio and Zumwalt, 1977) However, bone fracture from cavitation is an extremely rare event. (Fackler, 1996) The ballistic pressure wave from distant bullet impact can induce a concussive-like effect in humans, causing acute neurological symptoms. (Courtney and Courtney, 2007)
The mathematics of wound ballistics, in reference to yaw of unstable projectiles, has been described. The model works well for non-deformable bullets. (Peters et al, 1996)(Peters and Sebourn, 1996)
Experimental methods to demonstrate tissue damage have utilized materials with characteristics similar to human soft tissues and skin. Pigskin has been employed to provide an external layer to blocks of compounds such as ordnance gelatin or ballistic soap. Firing of bullets into these materials at various ranges is followed by direct visual inspection (cutting the block) or radiographic analysis (CT imaging) to determine the sizes and appearances of the cavity produced (Rutty, et al, 2007).
The following images illustrate bullet deformation and damage:
- Bullet track in clay model, gross
- Deformed bullet recovered from shooting victim, gross
Bullet velocity and mass will affect the nature of wounding. Velocity is classified as low (<1000 fps), medium (1000 to 2000 fps), and high (>2000 fps). (Wilson, 1977) An M-16 rifle (.223 cal) is designed to produce larger wounds with high velocity, lower mass bullets that tumble, cavitate, and release energy quickly upon striking the target. A hunting rifle (.308 cal or greater) would have a larger mass bullet to penetrate a greater depth to kill a large game animal at a longer distance.
Bullet design is important in wounding potential. The Hague Convention of 1899 (and subsequently the Geneva Convention) forbade the use of expanding, deformable bullets in wartime. Therefore, military bullets have full metal jackets around the lead core. Of course, the treaty had less to do with compliance than the fact that modern military assault rifles fire projectiles at high velocity (>2000 fps) and the bullets need to be jacketed with copper, because the lead begins to melt from heat generated at speeds >2000 fps.
Bullet shapes are diagrammed below:
"Frangible" bullets are designed to disintegrate upon striking a hard surface. Such bullets are typically made of a metal other than lead, such as copper powder compacted into a bullet shape, as diagrammed below:
The distance of the target from the muzzle plays a large role in wounding capacity, for most bullets fired from handguns have lost significant kinetic energy (KE) at 100 yards, while high-velocity military .308 rounds still have considerable KE even at 500 yards. Military and hunting rifles are designed to deliver bullets with more KE at a greater distance than are handguns and shotguns.
The type of tissue affects wounding potential, as well as the depth of penetration. (Bartlett, 2003) Specific gravity (density) and elasticity are the major tissue factors. The higher the specific gravity, the greater the damage. The greater the elasticity, the less the damage. Thus, lung tissue of low density and high elasticity is damaged less than muscle with higher density but some elasticity. Liver, spleen, and brain have no elasticity and are easily injured, as is adipose tissue. Fluid-filled organs (bladder, heart, great vessels, bowel) can burst because of pressure waves generated. A bullet striking bone may cause fragmentation of bone and/or bullet, with numerous secondary missiles formed, each producing additional wounding.
The speed at which a projectile must travel to penetrate skin is 163 fps and to break bone is 213 fps, both of which are quite low, so other factors are more important in producing damage. (Belkin, 1978)
Designing a bullet for efficient transfer of energy to a particular target is not straightforward, for targets differ. To penetrate the thick hide and tough bone of an elephant, the bullet must be pointed, of small diameter, and durable enough to resist disintegration. However, such a bullet would penetrate most human tissues like a spear, doing little more damage than a knife wound. A bullet designed to damage human tissues would need some sort of "brakes" so that all the KE was transmitted to the target.
It is easier to design features that aid deceleration of a larger, slower moving bullet in tissues than a small, high velocity bullet. Such measures include shape modifications like round (round nose), flattened (wadcutter), or cupped (hollowpoint) bullet nose. Round nose bullets provide the least braking, are usually jacketed, and are useful mostly in low velocity handguns. The wadcutter design provides the most braking from shape alone, is not jacketed, and is used in low velocity handguns (often for target practice). A semi-wadcutter design is intermediate between the round nose and wadcutter and is useful at medium velocity. Hollowpoint bullet design facilitates turning the bullet "inside out" and flattening the front, referred to as "expansion." Expansion reliably occurs only at velocities exceeding 1200 fps, so is suited only to the highest velocity handguns. A frangible bullet composed of a powder is designed to disintegrate upon impact, delivering all KE, but without significant penetration; the size of the fragments should decrease as impact velocity increases.
These weapons are easily concealed but hard to aim accurately, especially in crime scenes. Most handgun shootings occur at less than 7 yards, but even so, most bullets miss their intended target (only 11% of assailants' bullets and 25% of bullets fired by police officers hit the intended target in a study by Lesce, 1984). Usually, low caliber weapons are employed in crimes because they are cheaper and lighter to carry and easier to control when shooting. Tissue destruction can be increased at any caliber by use of hollow point expanding bullets. Some law enforcement agencies have adopted such bullets because they are thought to have more "stopping power" at short range. Most handgun bullets, though, deliver less than 1000 ft/lb of KE. (Ragsdale, 1984)
However, there is a myth, kept alive by portrayals of shooting victims on television and in films being hurled backwards, that victims are actually "knocked down" or displaced by being struck with the force of a bullet. In fact, real gunshot victims relate that they had no immediate reaction. (Fackler, 1998) The maximum momentum transferred from different small arms projectiles, including large caliber rifles and shotguns, to an 80 kg body is only 0.01 to 0.18 m/s, negligible compared to the 1 to 2 m/s velocity of a pedestrian. (Karger and Knewbuehl, 1996) Incapacitation of gunshot victims is primarily a function of the area of the body wounded. Immediate incapacitation may occur with gunshot wounds to the brain and upper cervical cord. Rapid incapacitation may occur with massive bleeding from major blood vessels or the heart. (Karger, 1995)
The two major variables in handgun ballistics are diameter of the bullet and volume of gunpowder in the cartridge case. Cartridges of older design were limited by the pressures they could withstand, but advances in metallurgy have allowed doubling and tripling of the maximum pressures so that more KE can be generated.
Many different cartridges are available using different loads and bullet designs. Some of these are outlined in the table below to compare and contrast the ballistics.
Reprinted from The Library of Utah Website.
This is my personal take on ammo selection and considerations:
Ammo and bullets is a very complex subject with lots of variables. I will try to talk about some of these factors and considerations to consider when picking out ammo.
Ammo is basically about two main things, speed and weight (third factor is ammo expansion) - some say speed is more important, others say weight is more important. Normally bigger is better, bigger hole, bigger weight. Many different things go into bullet dynamics and performance.
When a bullet hits a target, several things happen. It makes a primary and secondary cavity. The primary cavity is the track of the bullet, the primary of a .22 or .45 will only differ by the .45 making a bigger hole, the bigger the hole the more and faster the blood loss. The secondary cavity is made by speed, the faster the bullet the faster it pushes mass out of its path, smashing that flying tissue up against other tissue and organs, so that action creates the secondary cavity. The bigger the secondary cavity means possible more blood loss, more secondary damage and more shock to nearby organs and tissue. A way to picture this is if I shoot in the hand with a .22, it will make a hole the size of a .22 bullet, that is primary cavity. If I shoot you in the hand with a .223 traveling at over 3000 feet per second, your hand will somewhat explode, expand rapidly and meat will fly off, the flying stuff is the secondary cavity. Another way to imagine this is diving into a pool of water, a diver hits straight and makes little splash, but a cannon ball creates a large splash and bigger hole, this is like a ball bullet (straight dive/little splash) or an expanding hollow point (cannon ball/big splash).
So, the bigger the primary and the bigger the secondary normally does more damage and will incapacity the target quicker and more effectively. A .45 is slower but makes a bigger hole, a 9mm is faster but makes a smaller hole. The heavier the weight of the bullet, the more the bullet will NOT be affected by other things like wind, rain, clothes, doors, sheet rock, bone, skin and tissue. Energy transfer is when the energy of speed and weight (some time called kinetic energy) of bullet is transferred from the bullet to the body, bone or target. (Energy = Mass times Speed )
Smaller lighter slower bullets can ricochet off bones, buttons, glass and other things easier than a bigger heavier bullet that tends to push forward with the heavier weight. A .22 will not shatter a bone like a much larger and heavier .45 will. I have seen 9mm and 40 calibers bounce off or deflect off many windshields of cars, yet a .45 will punch a hole in a windshield and rarely bounce off. Of course the angle of shot and windshield will effect this, but a heavier bullet is less impacted by objects it hits than lighter bullets.
The idea behind stopping a target is hitting brain stem, stopping the brain, or stopping the ability for the target to move or either get away or stop it from charging you. Hitting a head shot is tough and a much smaller target. Most people are taught to shoot center mass or more specifically, center mass of the target available. By shooting center mass you are more likely to hit your target. Shooting center mass increases your chances to hit vital organs and tissue, creating more blood loss. Blood loss is important since the brain and body requires blood to act. So the faster you can create massive blood loss, the faster your target stops moving. Bigger holes and deeper holes create faster bleeding.
Remember a pistol is traditionally a "Defensive Weapon" when you let a target get too close and you cannot engage it with a more powerful "Offensive Weapon" like a Rifle. Pistol rounds have come a long way with more speed, heavier weights and better bullet design and materials over the years. But few pistol rounds gives you the weight, size and speed of a rifle round.
Therefore, a general rule of thumb, bigger diameter, bigger weight and faster speed is best for most damage and incapacitation. Incapacitation being more blood loss, more tissue and organ damage and more crushed or broken bones.
Bullet design is another factor to consider. What you choose depends on what you want or expect to use the ammo for. Hollow points can lose some weight but are designed to expand upon impact, that way you get bigger hole from bullet expansion and a bigger primary cavity. Faster speed gives you a bigger secondary cavity. However, when a bullet expands, it slows down much faster and does not make a long or deep primary cavity (less penetration) like a round nose solid tip bullet, that will tend to push right through the target. Then you have frangible bullets that shatter and tear apart, so you get many small primary cavities but not much speed or penetration, with the theory being more holes, more bleeding, more blood loss. The more the bullet penetrates, the longer the primary and secondary cavity will be, so the more blood loss and tissue damage. Most bullets are lead with metal jacket, but you can also get steel core ammo, which can also be called armor piercing. Steel has very good penetration especially if it is going fast. The best way to tell if a bullet is Steel core is to put a magnet on it, it the bullet sticks to magnet it has steel in it. Lots of fake green tip ammo being sold that does not have a steel core, so the magnet test is good to know.
Other considerations is when and under what conditions are you planning on shooting, in winter when people are wearing lots of clothes and large thick jacket, hollow point ammo does not penetrate as well as compared to a guy wearing just a t-shirt in summer. Of course, if a bullet is going faster it will go deeper than a hollow point going slow.
That is just some of the many considerations when choosing ammo and as you can see lots of factors, but the short answer is: Bigger, heavy and faster is best.
Here is a big reason why I choose a .45 caliber over a 9mm caliber -
Robbery suspect was shot 33 times with a 9mm before being stopped:
Stopping Power - Hatcher Values
General Julian Hatcher, a noted forensic pathologist,
in the early 1900’s developed a good formula to determine the theoretical stopping power of a firearm cartridge. His formula has withstood the test of time and validation from other studies and data related to stopping power.
You want a handgun cartridge that has a Hatcher value of over 50 for the most effective stopping power. Values over 55 have diminishing returns in that you don’t gain any significant increase in stopping power for the extra recoil and control you must cope with. Handgun cartridges that don’t make a value of at least 50, should not considered for self-defense. If the rating of your handgun cartridge is under 30, it only has about a 30% chance of producing a one shot stop. Hatcher Ratings of 30 to 49 raise a one shot stop to approximately a 50% chance. Ratings of 50 or higher produce a one shot stop about 90% of the time.
Hatcher Rating - Handgun Cartridge Type
136.8 - *.44 Magnum lead wad cutter 240 grain
92.3 - .44 Magnum full metal jacket 240 grain
80 - *.41 Magnum lead wad cutter 230 grain
76.5 - *.44 Special lead wad cutter 240 grain
62.1 - 10 millimeter jacketed hollow point 180 grain
60.7 - .45 ACP jacketed hollow point 230 grain
59.4 - .40 S&W jacketed hollow point 180 grain
54 - .41 Magnum full metal jacket 230 grain
53.4 - .40 S&W full metal jacket flat nose 180 grain
51.6 - .44 Special full metal jacket 240 grain
50.3 - 10 millimeter full metal jacket 180 grain
--------------- Rounds Above this 90 Percent of One Shot Stop -------------------
49.1 - .45 ACP full metal jacket 230 grain
48.5 - **.357 Magnum lead wad cutter 158 grain
48.5 - **.357 Magnum lead wad cutter 158 grain
48.5 - **.357 Magnum lead wad cutter 158 grain
45.2 - .357 SIG jacketed hollow point 147 grain
39.9 - 9 mm jacketed hollow point 147 grain
39.7 - *.38 Special lead wad cutter 158 grain
36.6 - .357 SIG full metal jacket 147 grain
32.7 - **.357 Magnum full metal jacket 158 grain
32.3 - 9 mm full metal jacket 147 grain
26.7 - .38 Special full metal jacket 158 grain
18.3 - .380 Auto jacketed hollow point 95 grain
11.1 - .32 Auto jacketed hollow point 71 grain
3.7 - .25 Auto jacketed hollow point 50 grain
4.2 - .22 Long Rifle jacketed hollow point 40 grain
* Jacketed hollow points will have the same rating as wad cutter bullets if the bullet hollow tip is greater than 1/2 of the caliber of the bullet.
* .357 Magnum ratings are taken from a firearm with a 3 inch barrel. Longer barrels will raise the rating of the round.
Reality - Training Wrong Can Get You Killed
Here is a photo of four dead CHP Traffic Officers that were killed on a traffic stop. The event changed the way the CHP trained. Back then CHP were prevented from dropping brass on the range when they reloaded their revolvers. Therefore, it was policy when they shot at the range they would empty the brass from their gun into their hand and then put the brass in their pants pocket, to keep the range clean. After years of training this way it became habit. In a critical incident you revert to training, so guess what they found in these four dead officers pants pocket? You guess it, empty brass casing. They did what they were training to do. Not very tactical and it could have been the difference between living and dying.
People like to say "Practice makes perfect". That is NOT true. If you practice or train bad, it can get you killed. This is why I am not a fan of range shooting, at paper, no movement and overly controlled. All of that is fine for safe ranges but it reinforces bad survival skills and creates muscle memory that is NOT tactical.
In the picture below the correct sight picture is far left, notice the rear sight and target is fuzzy, and the front sight is clear. Always focus on the front sight so it is clear when you shoot.
Below is an AR, M4, or M16 sight, notice the Front post is clear and in focus.
Again notice the correct sight picture the front sight is clear and the rear sight and target is out of focus.
In this picture wherever the front sight is will be where the bullet hits, when front sight is high, bullets hit high, when front sight to left, bullets hit left.
In this picture it shows sights what are called the figure 8 or straight 8 sights.
In this picture notice the grip is low and not high on the back strap.
Eye Dominance: Finding your Dominate Eye is easy, place your hands like the picture below and with both eyes open put something in the middle opening hole above the thumbs. Once centered on an object, don't move your hands, and shut eye. If the object stays in the center your open eye is your dominate eye. If the object disappears, your dominate eye is closed.
Target Kill Zones
The above image is known as the "Fatal T" a bullet to the area of the T is considered a high probability kill or incapacitating shot. The top of the T will put a bullet in the brain and head, which is blood rich and is likely to be a one shot stop. The bottom of the T follows the Spine, center mass and major organs. Hits in these areas will do much more damage than hits on limbs or edge of the body. Shooting center mass has been a common training principle for many years.
The image above is know as the sniper kill or one shot stop. A bullet to this area instantly shuts down the brain. The idea is to destroy, disrupt, disconnect or separate the brain stem. Some call this the Celery Stalk. It is about one inch in diameter and connects the spinal column to the brain. A hit to the stem will stop all motor skills including reflex action, so even if his finger is on the trigger, he cannot pull it. An easy way to remember this if you see the ears, shoot for the middle of head between the ears.
This is a photo of a high power bullet when it hits a head. You will notice the expansion of the scull and head cavity. I talk about this in my bullet videos about fast is better, speed causes a bigger secondary cavity which pushes and force matter out of the way. The speed of this bullet push so much matter so quickly that caused the head to have an explosive effect.
A knife should be a part of everyone's every day carry (EDC). Although it has many uses, protection, defense and doing damage to the enemy makes it a very valuable tool. Here a couple of pictures that show the leathal capabilities of a knife.
It is not only good to know what damage you can do with a knife, it is also important to know what your enemy can do with a knife.
Cop After Shooting with Finger On Trigger
The picture below is of an Officer that had just shot and killed a suspect with a gun. A lot is going on in the Officer's mind right now, like he is glad he is alive but he is sorry he just had to kill someone. A lot of Adrenaline still running around in his body, fight or flight response, heart rate still high, maybe has some auditory exclusion - any statement he makes will be used against him, any admissions may cause him to be fired or go to jail. So he is not thinking of "Finger off the Trigger".
Nowadays this is taught and is pretty standard, not too long ago this was not taught. Studies about Interlimb interaction had not been done yet. Studies about the Sympathetic Squeeze Response were not known. Therefore, for the time this was normal. It that picture was taken today it would be used against him as bad training and bad safety practices.
Here is a video I did about
Interlimb Interaction - Sympathetic Squeeze Response & Keeping Your Finger Off the Trigger.
Times change, tactics change, laws change, training change - The only constant is change.
Escalation of Force - Voice, Stance, Actions
The picture below shows some ways that what you do, how you talk and other factors that go into escalation of force, sometimes call the force continuum. *source Street Survival Tactical Edge
So telling someone "please stop" is very different than, "if you don't fucking stop I will shoot you in the head." If your shooting stance is weak, leaving back, you are shaking and look nervous or insecure will all send non verbal information to the bad guy and it may be the difference in him deciding if he attacks or stops.
Much more information is given and conveyed by your stance, actions, behavior and what you don't say, rather than just your words you say.
"Ricks Bio and History"
Not to big on sharing too much information but I will give a brief bio of my gun, shooting and law enforcement experience.
In High School I was in ROTC and on the school Rifle Team, back when guns were not feared.
Joined the Air Force in 70's and retired in 90's. During that time, I was a cop and K-9 handler. Worked attack, narcotic and explosive detector dogs, assigned to Secret Service for President security, worked with DEA at Internations Airports for drugs, worked with US Customs on border drug smuggling and other details.
While in Korea twice, I worked dogs and with US Customs and KNP (Korean National Police) in various operations. Got to visit the DMZ (Demilitarized Zone) on a unique trip when one of our choppers were shot down and we were flown in and dropped off to provide security for the downed aircraft and get the injured out. I remember reading in the paper, a few days later, that a helicopter went in the DMZ from engine malfunction. The big joke between the guys on the operation was, yea it went down for engine failure, when bullets hit the engine, it normally causes engine failure. One of the many times, I watched the Government lie, hide and mislead the people.
While at Lackland Air Force Base in Texas, I trained dog for all branches of the military for drug, bomb, attack and search & rescue and worked with the base police. During that time is when the Iran Hostage incident happened so tensions were high. We had over 100 Iranian military students that we were training to be Pilots and Officers on the base. Back then, the US was close to the Shah of Iran and he had defected from his country and was being helped and hidden by the US, he was also wanted dead or alive by many, so not having him killed on our watch was tasking. He had medical issues so Wilford Hall Hospital was providing his free healthcare, but many people wanted him dead. I was assigned with many others to provide protection of him and his entourage, until they found a better place to relocate him. Just one of the many operations that US tax dollars paid for and very few ever knew about it.
While stationed in Ohio I worked a Drug Dog (Herc) on base and assisted Ohio State Police in various drug operations. While here, my great dog Herc and I had over 300 actual drug finds. I remember letting him off leash in parking lots and he would alert on several vehicles, I would put a sheet a paper under the windshield wiper, call for back up to secure the lots and then get all the information for warrants so I could do all the warrants at one time. This base was pretty big, we had three fishing ponds, on base hunting and lots of super-secret areas. Many believe that is where any UFO evidence is kept, I never saw anything but there many areas on the base cops were not allowed in and if we had to respond to an incident everything had to be covered with sheets before we were allowed to enter. I still have no idea what went on there.
While assigned to Hawaii, I was the Kennelmaster and started the only full time SWAT Team in the Air Force. Since Hawaii was a popular spot for dignitary visits, we worked closely with FBI and the Secret Service during routine protection details for the President, VP and other heads of countries that visited. During that time, the President of Philippines was fleeing his country after stealing all their wealth and he was hiding out on Hickam AFB, Hawaii. He was said to be the most wanted man in the world and many wanted him dead. For weeks, our SWAT and the US Secret Service provided 24-hour protection for this piece of shit, his wife with his 25 person fellow crooks that fled the country. Watching these people eat, drink and shop free, all being paid by US tax dollars never sat well with me and others. He hid out on Hickam AFB for about a month or two and then was moved elsewhere.
While stationed in California for over 10 years, I ran the Dog Section, the base SWAT and was Shift Supervisor. While there, I worked several operations with different State and Federal Agencies. I conducted an Operation with DEA at San Francisco International Airport doing "Profile Stops" on suspected international drug smugglers. This was back when it was OK to focus on people we knew were committing crimes without the liberals yelling we were picking the drug smugglers. We worked plain-clothes, reviewed flight information and any traveler coming from a high drug country, traveling alone, with a one way ticked and a few other criteria, we approach them as they got off the plane, identified ourselves and asked to search them and their luggage. If they said NO, we would hold them, call over our other federal agents, US Customs who do not need probably cause (PC) or warrants to search, and they would search them anyway. Had a very high success rate of finding drugs with cash, even if we had to trim a little fat off the constitution and bend the laws. Do the ends justify the means?
In the 80s, I was sent down to El Paso with Border Control and US Custom in a Joint Operation to intercept large shipments of drugs crossing the border. We had all branches of service with drug dogs and made several large finds one being a large fake gas tanker truck that was filled with Heroin and not gas. For sure, the biggest drug bust I was involved in. Pretty sure more drugs got in than we stopped but it looked good the Gov could do press releases on how good they are for finding something.
While in California and in Ohio, I worked a Bomb Dog and was assigned to the Secret Service (SS) for President Protection on several occasions. When working with the SS. The Secret Service have total authority and do not follow any rules of law. When you say you are protecting the President, no one says no and if they do, they are searched, cuffed and taken away quickly. Although I understood it was the President, I did not like the abuse of power and use of force without any accountability. Your civil rights are just a catch phrase when the President is around. Try being free around the President and you find yourself in jail.
While at Travis Air Force Base, California, I worked part-time as a civilian police officer in the Vallejo and Woodland. Two very different towns. Vallejo was pretty to close to Richmond and Oakland, California and all three cities were riddled with high violence and high crime. Did I mention that all three cities had predominately black populations. Until you are a white cop in a predominately black city, you have no idea what the differences are so those that throw out racist have no clue what they are talking about, facts are still facts even if you label them racist or mean. Let's say I saw more shootings, rapes and other violent crimes than any other city I worked and probably more than all other cities I have worked combined. Sacramento is no Disneyland but crime for population, Vallejo wins hands down.
Other side jobs or operations included being a member of the Air Force Pistol and Rifle team, working with Rangers and Special Forces breaking into and penetrating military bases in Germany testing their security, Desert Shield & Storm, Haiti Relief, a member of 44 man world wide deployment team that could be anywhere in the world in 24 hours, a Rappelmaster teaching rappelling from mountains, helicopters and structures, a Rangemaster, training and competing in military tactics, traveling to Turkey, Philippines and a few other countries.
That is the short story of my Air Force career. I had a top-secret clearance so some things and some operations I can't talk about since the Government takes that shit personal and will try to put your ass in jail if you talk about it. Which is why any military member involved in operations that are deemed, called or can be connected to "National Security", they are required to sign a confidentiality agreement under felony penalty if they discuss it.
After retiring from the military, I moved into civilian Law Enforcement. I did a couple of years working Welfare Fraud Investigations, a few years working Child Abduction and a year or so working on a Gun crimes grant. I was a member of the Witness Protection Team that provided protection to high-risk witnesses who had not yet testified and the District Attorney needed their testimony, after they testified they were put out to the wolves and on their own. Over time, I worked on several different Task Forces. A few years with the FBI Gang Task Force (TF) in Sacramento, while on this TF I was sworn in as a Deputy FBI Agent and Deputy US Marshall to enable us to enforce and conduct investigations on Federal crimes. A couple of years with the Sacramento High Tech Computer Crimes Task Force. Three years with the Sacramento Auto Theft Task Force which was run by the California Highway Patrol (CHP) and the Sacramento Sheriff's Office.
As a Detective with the District Attorney's Office, I worked all crimes that occurred in the county from rapes, robberies, murders, official corruption, Officer Involved shootings, drugs, etc.
I was one of two Firearms trainers for my agency and also the trainer and certified instructor for Weaponless Defense Tactics and Baton and Impact Weapons training. I developed policy and Operating Instructions (OIs) for use of force in the department.
I have written and served over 300 search warrants and testified as an expert in Superior Court and Federal court as an expert. Some areas that I was qualified as an expert in were Drugs, Use of Force, K-9 use, Firearms, Computer Crimes and Auto Theft. That may sound like a lot, but in order to be qualified as an expert, the court standard is, you have to have more knowledge than the average person does. Not a very high standard, however Prosecutors love to use the term to impress jurors that don't know any better. I was also involved in Jury selection so I know many of the tricks Prosecutors used to help them win a case. I have seen first-hand the private conversations in the Judge's office and behind the scenes. The system is a joke run by lawyers for lawyers.
Over the years, I have seen many crimes scenes, dealt with many victims, and seen many dead cops, dead victims and dead suspects. I always hear people say cops are angry, don't trust people, and are judgmental. No shit, those are the things you learn, live and see every shift and paying attention to those things keeps you alive.
That's it in a nutshell. I guess the point is, the things I say, preach and try to pass on, come from first-hand experience with crimes, violence, the courts, predators, Prosecutors, the Government and being a survivor. Therefore, you can take it or leave it - it is what it is.
The Difference in 1911 Pistols - Series 70 and Series 80 Explained
The major difference in Series 70 and Series 80 type 1911 pistols are fairly simple. The short version is Series 70 is older and more reliable and Series 80 is newer, more parts, commonly called a "fining pin safety model" and is less reliable.
The Series 70 is better, more efficient, less moving parts, less friction on trigger, less pressure on trigger, less parts to break or malfunction, less parts to get dirty or gum up and is a better more superior design.
The Series 80 is worse design, less efficient, has more moving parts, has more friction on the trigger, more pressure on the trigger, more parts to break or malfunction, more parts to get dirty, gum up and is a inferior design.
I have listed below the makers of both 70 and 80 series. It is very easy to see that more High Quality manufacturers choose to make their guns as a Series 70. The simple fact is mass production 1911s, like Kimbers and Sig Sauer use the substandard and inferior Series 80 Design. Is it just a coincidence that both these manufactures have the worst customer service reports and find 1000 and one ways to void their warranty?
Series 70 Makers:
Rock Island Armory (RIA)
Series 80 Makers:
* Kimber, Smith & Wesson and Sig Sauer make very pretty and attractive guns, but for me, it is like having a nice looking Porsche on the outside with a Yugo 4-cylinder engine under the hood.
NOTE: Kimber and Sig uses a different type of fire pin safety than the older style. Kimber uses the Swartz system, same concept, the firing pin is blocked UNLESS moving parts move to release it. It still causes extra friction, more moving parts and is NOT needed imo. Colt REFUSED to use what Kimber uses and the reason they gave was - "the swartz system is UNRELIABLE". Maybe true maybe not. The Kimber lovers hate this fact and want to argue that Kimbers are NOT series 70 or 80, technically correct, but it does not change the facts I have listed on why I don't like the extra safety crap in a gun that works fine without it.
Here are a couple of photos of the Swartz safety system:
Here is a link to a video with pictures and explanation of this topic explaining the Colt original styles of series 70 and 80. Click Here for video on The Difference Between Series 70 and 80 1911s.
Here is a link to a
good article about different 1911s.
Link to: Yawara Stick Instruction Manual
Why You Should Never Talk To The Cops
I have said many times when I was a cop - It is better if you don't make a statement, don't talk to me and remain silent. There is an attitude that if you remain silent or refuse to talk, then you must be guilty or have something to hide. In the current adversarial relationship between citizens and the Government, protecting yourself should be your primary concern.
Nothing you say can help you and can only be used against you. Police work for the Government and politicians, they have careers to protect, policy to follow, they make mistakes, they misremember things, some things are accidentally left out of reports, their memory is not perfect and many other factors can come into play and you may become collateral damage during an investigation. The old saying, Truth is what the cop puts in the police report, is true to many.
Any lawyer will tell you DO NOT talk to the cops or give any statements. Anything you say can be misunderstood, taken wrong, repeated wrong, remembered wrong, important parts can be forgotten, confused or intentionally withheld by the Government, especially if it hurts their case.
This video is a Lawyer that explains this very well. Invest 20 minutes and watch this video where this experienced Lawyer gives specific reasons on why you should not talk to the Police.
Don't Talk To The Police Video
Understanding the Amazing Flight or Fight Response
This topic is a must read for anyone who carries a gun or who may have to use deadly force when they find themselves in a deadly force encounter. This is a critical topic that is rarly talked about. Click the link above or click here for Flight or Fight page.
This is a 50 page topic on Officer Survival where a LA Sheriff discusses good topics and things to think about for Off Duty Officers. Citizens are potential victims as much as off duty officers, there are lots of things in here that apply to citizens who carry, so I hope this information helps.
Off Duty Survival Tips PDF
After Action Report to the Washington Navy Yard Shooting 7.11.14
After critical incidents normally involving multiple agencies an after action report is completed. The purpose of these reports is to identify problems, evaluate the situation and identify ways to improve or enhance future similar type operations or responses.
Sometime one agency will do one to politely point out how other agencies screwed up of failed to work with or provide assistance.
This report is appears to point out several problems with the Navy Yard when it comes to 911 dispatchers, failing to get information out fast enough, releasing critical information to media, tweeting police communications, radio & communications issues, training concerns and other things, that may or may not have affect the response or the time needed to stop the suspect and shooting scenario.
These reports will be used by all agencies to request more funding, more training money, more training time and to justify why cuts should not be made. Sometime these are helpful, sometime they are just normal Gov whitewash to complete another agenda. For those not in Gov, I figured it would be nice to read. Try and read it critically and for everything said, see if you can tell the difference in what is said and what the hidden meaning is or how this could be used later. This report seems long, repetitive and throws some zingers at the Navy, but that is just my opinion. Remember that in Government the system protects the system and thinks of ways to keep, get more or justify more money, more people and more power / control. You will never see in any of these type of reports things like we had everything we needed and some things can be cut and we could still do just as good as a job. Not going to happen in Government.
Enjoy the read.
Washington Navy Shooting After Action Report
SEARCH WARRANT INFORMATION
Here is a link to video where I discuss Writing A Search Warrant.
Below are Links to Actual Search Warrants:
Here is a PDF on Search Warrant Information on different types or special authorizations. Search Warrant Special Situations PDF
I did a video on AR, M4 or M16 mod (modification). I had an M4 not ejecting and I did this and it fixed the issue.
Click Here to see the Video on AR Bolt Mod
If you own a GLOCK PISTOL here is a good
Glock Armorers Manual PDF
Here is a picture of a well used holster that caused a Glock to accidentally discharge. It does not make or mean that Glocks are bad or dangerous or unsafe. It means that you should make sure your equipment is well maintained and in good working order. (you can right click on the picture and open in a New Tab for a bigger view)
Here is some Notes and good information about
Deadly Force Case Law. (Click Here)
Here is a video where I play actual audio of a police chase where a motorcycle ran from me. I discuss the problems that cops face when trying to chase people, talking on the radio and other issues. You can view the video A Police Chase of Fleeing Suspect.
Preppers commonly may need to make explosives for clearing rocks, stumps or digging, here is a list of a collection I found on the net, just passing it on, I am NOT saying it is accurate, safe or even works, so feel free to review and decide for yourself. Explosive Information PDF
LAWFUL MILITARY ORDERS
The following article is about Military Orders and when can someone refuse to follow and what are the possible consequences. It always bothered me in the Military and in Police word, the burden of proof was always put on the lowest member in the chain. There really is no enforcement when illegal orders are give by Commanders only when lower ranking people refuse to follow orders is there an issue.
In our ever growing and untrustworthy Government, there is reasonable and justified fear that our Government will use the US military against he people and against the Constitution.
Would the lower ranks blindly follow unlawful and Galilean orders to use force on the people of the United States in direct violation of their Oath and the Constitution? I say it is very hard for anyone to no and risk the consequences in case you are wrong, but I can hope they would follow their Oath and uphold the Constitution.
This article is a good read.
Military Orders - To Obey or Not to Obey?
When one enlists in the United States Military, active duty or reserve, they take the following oath:
I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; and that I will obey the orders of the President of the United States and the orders of the officers appointed over me, according to regulations and the Uniform Code of Military Justice.
National Guard enlisted members take a similar oath, except they also swear to obey the orders of the Governor of their state.
Officers, upon commission, swear to the following:
I do solemnly swear that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter.
Military discipline and effectiveness is built on the foundation of obedience
to orders. Recruits are taught to obey, immediately and without question, orders from their superiors, right from day-one of boot camp.
Military members who fail to obey the lawful orders of their superiors risk serious consequences. Article 90 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ)
makes it a crime for a military member to WILLFULLY disobey a superior commissioned officer.
makes it a crime to WILLFULLY disobey a superior Noncommissioned or Warrant Officer. Article 92
makes it a crime to disobey any lawful order (the disobedience does not have to be "willful" under this article).
In fact, under Article 90, during times of war, a military member who willfully disobeys a superior commissioned officer can be sentenced to death.
Seems like pretty good motivation to obey any order you're given, right? Nope. These articles require the obedience of LAWFUL orders. An order which is unlawful not only does not need to be obeyed, but obeying such an order can result in criminal prosecution of the one who obeys it. Military courts have long held that military members are accountable for their actions even while following orders -- if the order was illegal.
"I was only following orders,"
has been unsuccessfully used as a legal defense in hundreds of cases (probably most notably by Nazi leaders at the Nuremberg tribunals following World War II). The defense didn't work for them, nor has it worked in hundreds of cases since.
The first recorded case of a United States Military officer using the "I was only following orders" defense dates back to 1799. During the War with France, Congress passed a law making it permissible to seize ships bound to any French Port. However, when President John Adams wrote the order to authorize the U.S. Navy to do so, he wrote that Navy ships were authorized to seize any vessel bound for a French port, or traveling from a French port. Pursuant to the President's instructions, a U.S. Navy captain seized a Danish Ship (the Flying Fish), which was en route from a French Port. The owners of the ship sued the Navy captain in U.S. maritime court for trespass. They won, and the United States Supreme Court upheld the decision. The U.S. Supreme Court held that Navy commanders "act at their own peril"
when obeying presidential orders when such orders are illegal.
The Vietnam War presented the United States military courts with more cases of the "I was only following orders" defense than any previous conflict. The decisions during these cases reaffirmed that following manifestly illegal orders is not a viable defense from criminal prosecution. In United States v. Keenan, the accused (Keenan) was found guilty of murder after he obeyed in order to shoot and kill an elderly Vietnamese citizen. The Court of Military Appeals held that "the justification for acts done pursuant to orders does not exist if the order was of such a nature that a man of ordinary sense and understanding would know it to be illegal." (Interestingly, the soldier who gave Keenan the order, Corporal Luczko, was acquitted by reason of insanity).
Probably the most famous case of the "I was only following orders" defense was the court-martial (and conviction for premeditated murder) of First Lieutenant William Calley for his part in the My Lai Massacre on March 16, 1968. The military court rejected Calley's argument of obeying the order of his superiors. On March 29, 1971, Calley was sentenced to life in prison. However, the public outcry in the United States following this very publicized and controversial trial was such that President Nixon granted him clemency.
Calley wound up spending 3 1/2 years under house arrest at Fort Benning Georgia, where a federal judge ultimately ordered his release.
In 2004, the military began court-martials of several military members deployed to Iraq for mistreating prisoners and detainees. Several members claimed that they were only following the orders of military intelligence officials. Unfortunately (for them), that defense won't fly. The mistreatment of prisoners is a crime under both international law, and the Uniform Code of Military Justice (see Article 93 ? Cruelty and Maltreatment).
It's clear, under military law, that military members can be held accountable for crimes committed under the guise of "obeying orders," and there is no requirement to obey orders which are unlawful. However, here's the rub: A military member disobeys such orders at his/her own peril. Ultimately, it's not whether or not the military member thinks the order is illegal or unlawful, it's whether military superiors (and courts) think the order was illegal or unlawful.
Take the case of Michael New. In 1995, Spec-4 Michael New was serving with the 1/15 Battalion of the 3rd infantry Division of the U.S. Army at Schweinfurt, Germany. When assigned as part of a multi-national peacekeeping mission about to be deployed to Macedonia, Spec-4 New and the other soldiers in his unit were ordered to wear United Nations (U.N.) Helmets and arm bands. New refused the order, contending that it was an illegal order. New's superiors disagreed. Ultimately, so did the court-martial panel. New was found guilty of disobeying a lawful order and sentenced to a bad conduct discharge. The Army Court of Criminal Appeals upheld the conviction, as did the Court of Appeals of the Armed Forces.
What about an order to participate in a dangerous mission? Can the military legally order one to go on a "suicide mission?" You bet they can.
In October 2004, the Army announced that they it were investigating up to 19 members of a platoon from the 343rd Quartermaster Company based in Rock Hill, South Carolina, for refusing to transport supplies in a dangerous area of Iraq.
According to family members, some of the troops thought the mission was "too dangerous" because their vehicles were unarmored (or had little armor), and the route they were scheduled to take is one of the most dangerous in Iraq.
According to reports, these members simply failed to show up for the pre-departure briefing for the mission.
Can they be punished for this? They certainly can. An order to perform a dangerous mission is lawful, because it's not an order to commit a crime. Under current law, and the Manual for Courts-Martial, "An order requiring the performance of a military duty or act may be inferred to be lawful and it is disobeyed at the peril of the subordinate. This inference does not apply to a patently illegal order, such as one that directs the commission of a crime."
In fact, if it can be shown that one or more of the soldiers influenced others to disobey, they may find the crime of Mutiny, under Article 94 added to the list of charges. Mutiny carries the death penalty, even in "peace time."
So, to obey, or not to obey? It depends on the order. Military members disobey orders at their own risk. They also obey orders at their own risk. An order to commit a crime is unlawful. An order to perform a military duty, no matter how dangerous is lawful, as long as it doesn't involve commission of a crime.
Reprinted from: http://usmilitary.about.com/cs/militarylaw1/a/obeyingorders_2.htm
There will come a time when a few will keep their oath and do what it takes to save this great country. When you see a Three Percenter symbol you should know what it means.
During the American Revolution, the active forces in the field against the King's tyranny never amounted to more than 3% of the colonists. Three percenters today, for the most part, identify with this 3% because they were true patriots fighting for the freedoms the nation we love and honor was founded on. Three percenters intend to maintain their God-given natural rights to liberty and property. History itself, for good or ill, is made by determined minorities. Never underestimate the power of a small group of committed citizens to change the world. Indeed, it has never been done otherwise.
Many of us three percenters swore an oath to support and defend the Constitution against all enemies, foreign and domestic, and affirming that we are guardians of the Republic, of the principles in our Declaration of Independence, and of the rights of our people,
we affirm and declare the following:
1. We will NOT obey orders to disarm the American people.
2. We will NOT obey orders to conduct warrantless searches of the American people
3. We will NOT obey orders to detain American citizens as “unlawful enemy combatants” or to subject them to military tribunal.
4. We will NOT obey orders to impose martial law or a “state of emergency” on a state.
5. We will NOT obey orders to invade and subjugate any state that asserts its sovereignty.
6. We will NOT obey any order to blockade American cities, thus turning them into giant concentration camps.
7. We will NOT obey any order to force American citizens into any form of detention camps under any pretext.
8. We will NOT obey orders to assist or support the use of any foreign troops on U.S. soil against the American people to “keep the peace” or to “maintain control."
9. We will NOT obey any orders to confiscate the property of the American people, including food and other essential supplies.
10.We will NOT obey any orders which infringe on the right of the people to free speech, to peaceably assemble, and to petition their government for a redress of grievances.
There are 21 million VETS in the USA, we are a threat to the oppression of our corrupt Government. Stay Vigilant my fellow warriors.
Here are some pics of some .45 APC shots to the hand at point blank range, all were self-inflicted and from guns that were thought to be Unloaded.
Some General Survival Tips By Pics
To get a better view of picture, right click on Pic and open in new tab
SNAKE IDENTIFICATION INFO
Here is a good tip for stopping a drip on your shelter.
Below is the Phonetic alphabet that most civilian Police Use:
Below is the Phonetic alphabet that most Federal & Military Use:
Here is a better read about Surviving 10 Types of Disasters
- the Riots section has good advice.
Here is some information about Home Protection Ideas for Off the grid.
Here is some information about Using Plants for Pharmacy production.
EMP Information PDF
Below is a picture to remind people about what happens when SHTF and the Gov refuses to come in and help the people. You will be "on your own" and if you don't have a gun - you will be a victim.
Trigger Finger Falsehood
The above picture is an old wives’ tale training, it is not true. If you know how to shoot and control your trigger pull, press, squeeze or whatever you want to call it, it does not matter if you use your toe or thumb to move the trigger back, anyone that can shoot correctly can use any part of their finger, they are ether be on target and they do not jerk the trigger so the bullet hits the target, or they will be off target and will jerk the trigger and miss. If the sights are on target when the bullet leaves the gun, it will hit. Don't fall for these easy fixes or things to blame for you missing.
Fundamentals: Grip, Stance, sight alignment, sight picture, smooth pressure on the trigger until the gun goes bang.
Here is the outline I used in the video on Texas Open Carry:
Texas Open Carry PDF
Texas Open Carry Word Doc
Malheur National Wildlife Refuge Bundy Stadoff Affidavit
Here is a link to Federal Arrest Probable Cause Affidavit for the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge in Hamey County, Oregon AKA: Bundy Stand Off in Oregon
CLICK HERE: Bundy Federal Affidavit
CLICK HERE: Support of Pretrial Detention of Bundy Group
CLICK HERE: Cliven Bundy Arrest & Charges PDF
CLICK HERE: Case Law On Police Prusuits and Deadly Force
How To Make Pemmican: A Survival Superfood That Can Last 50 Years
Packed with calories and nutrition and able to be packed and stored for long periods, pemmican is often called the ultimate survival food.
Created by Native Americans and adopted by European explorers of the New World, pemmican is a concentrated blend of fat and protein from lean, dried meat. The word “pemmican” is derived from the Cree root word “pimi” for “fat” or “grease.” Traditionally, the meats used in pemmican included bison, moose, deer and elk. Beef can be used as well.
The secret to pemmican’s long shelf life is in properly rendering the fat from the meat. The pemmican can be stored in airtight containers without refrigeration in a cool, dark and dry place. If made and stored property, it can last for years or even decades. There are reports of some pemmican lasting 50 or more years.
Let’s look at the steps to making pemmican.
1. Dry the meat. Cut off all the fat, and then slice the meat as thinly as possible before placing it on a drying rack in full sunlight. Another option is to place the meat directly on your oven rack with the oven temperature at its lowest setting. The meat needs to be dry enough that it cracks when you try to bend it. Adding salt will extend the shelf life. The more salt you add, the longer it will last.
2. Grind the meat. Now you need to grind the meat until it is powder form. If you do not have a food processor, mince the meat and then grind it in the blender. If you are in a survival situation, chop the meat into small bits and then crush it into a powder.
3. Render the fat. Now heat the fat in a crockpot, in the oven or on the stove. Use a low setting for several hours, and be sure to stir the fat occasionally until it has stopped bubbling. Then pour it through a mesh strainer to filter out any pieces.
4. Mix the meat with any dry extras. If you are using any nuts or dried fruit, such as raisins, dried cherries or cranberries, mix it with the dried meat in a large bowl (leaving room for the fat). Note: These extras reduce the shelf life.
5. Add the fat. Next, add one part of fat per every two parts of the dried meat mixture (add more fat if needed). Slowly pour the hot liquefied fat into the meat mixture and stir well.
6. Add any wet extras. If you are adding wet ingredients such as honey, maple syrup or peanut butter, mix them in now. If the mixture seems too wet, you can add a little almond meal to get it to your desired consistency. You also may add salt to taste if you like. Note: These extras will reduce the shelf life.
7. Form the pemmican. A popular method is to spread the mixture into a casserole dish. Let it get firm before cutting it into squares or bar sizes. If you prefer, you can form the mixture into balls.
8. Store the pemmican. Once cut, place it into airtight containers and store them in a cool, dark and dry place. You also store your pemmican in zippered bags in your freezer.
There are many varieties of pemmican, but they all use the basic instructions. Many other recipes begin with a 1:1:1 ratio of basic ingredients such as:
1 cup of dried meat
1 cup of dried fruit or berries
1 cup of melted animal fat
Pemmican is surprisingly filling and can supply energy for hours.
You can experiment to find the recipe that works well for you. Label the pemmican you make with the ingredients and proportions you used, so you will know what combinations work well and how you might want to tweak a certain recipe a little in the future.
Written by: Tricia Drevets
Here is a PDF file on How To Make Pemmican
Here is another recipe you can use if you want to try making your own supply of pemmican.
1. Take two pounds of beef and cut it into small strips.
2. Prepare the beef by either;
a. Cooking it very well and letting it dry until it is hard, or
b. Putting the beef in the sun until it is very dry.
3. Crush the beef by either
a. Pounding it with a hammer until it turns into a powder, or
b. Putting it through a meat grinder.
4. Add about one half-cup of raisins for each pound of beef. (Other berries can also be used if you prefer - like chokecherries, raspberries or currants.)
5. Put the ground beef and berries into a pie plate and pour hot beef fat or sheep fat on top until the beef and berries are covered. Be careful! Hot fat can cause very bad burns.
6. Stir the hot fat, ground beef and berries together until the fat begins to get hard.
7. Let the mixture cool and cut it into squares just like you would fudge. It better to make a little more pemmican than you think you need. Remember, pemmican does not spoil. The pemmican you make will not spoil for two or three years if you take care to keep it as cool and dry as possible.
AK 47 Korean Drum Magazine Manual
Apple iPhone Court Order PDF
The Five Monkeys Experiment
An experimenter puts 5 monkeys in a large cage. High up at the top of the cage, well beyond the reach of the monkeys, is a bunch of bananas. Underneath the bananas is a ladder.
The monkeys immediately spot the bananas and one begins to climb the ladder. As he does, however, the experimenter sprays him with a stream of cold water. Then, he proceeds to spray each of the other monkeys.
The monkey on the ladder scrambles off. And all 5 sit for a time on the floor, wet, cold, and bewildered. Soon, though, the temptation of the bananas is too great, and another monkey begins to climb the ladder. Again, the experimenter sprays the ambitious monkey with cold water and all the other monkeys as well. When a third monkey tries to climb the ladder, the other monkeys, wanting to avoid the cold spray, pull him off the ladder and beat him. The monkeys learned to associate going up the ladder with getting sprayed.
Now one monkey is removed and a new monkey is introduced to the cage. Spotting the bananas, he naively begins to climb the ladder. The other monkeys pull him off and beat him.
Here’s where it gets interesting. The experimenter removes a second one of the original monkeys from the cage and replaces him with a new monkey. Again, the new monkey begins to climb the ladder and, again, the other monkeys pull him off and beat him – including the monkey who had never been sprayed. Each original monkey is removed until no monkey that has ever been sprayed is still in the cage.
By the end of the experiment, none of the original monkeys were left and yet, despite none of them ever experiencing the cold, wet, spray, they had all learned never to try and go for the bananas and they would continue to beat any new monkey that tied.
If you could ask the Monkeys why they don't go for the Banana and why they beat others for trying, they would probably say:
That is just how it has always been done.
Since I have so many manuals to upload I created a new page for just manuals, click the link below.
Military Tactics, Survival & Training Manuals